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Mortimer Adler
Rogers Albritton
Alexander of Aphrodisias
Samuel Alexander
William Alston
Louise Antony
Thomas Aquinas
David Armstrong
Harald Atmanspacher
Robert Audi
Alexander Bain
Mark Balaguer
Jeffrey Barrett
William Belsham
Henri Bergson
Isaiah Berlin
Bernard Berofsky
Robert Bishop
Max Black
Susanne Bobzien
Emil du Bois-Reymond
Hilary Bok
Laurence BonJour
George Boole
Émile Boutroux
Michael Burke
Joseph Keim Campbell
Rudolf Carnap
Ernst Cassirer
David Chalmers
Roderick Chisholm
Randolph Clarke
Samuel Clarke
Anthony Collins
Antonella Corradini
Diodorus Cronus
Jonathan Dancy
Donald Davidson
Mario De Caro
Daniel Dennett
Jacques Derrida
René Descartes
Richard Double
Fred Dretske
John Dupré
John Earman
Laura Waddell Ekstrom
Herbert Feigl
John Martin Fischer
Owen Flanagan
Luciano Floridi
Philippa Foot
Alfred Fouilleé
Harry Frankfurt
Richard L. Franklin
Michael Frede
Gottlob Frege
Peter Geach
Edmund Gettier
Carl Ginet
Alvin Goldman
Nicholas St. John Green
H.Paul Grice
Ian Hacking
Ishtiyaque Haji
Stuart Hampshire
Sam Harris
William Hasker
Georg W.F. Hegel
Martin Heidegger
Thomas Hobbes
David Hodgson
Shadsworth Hodgson
Baron d'Holbach
Ted Honderich
Pamela Huby
David Hume
Ferenc Huoranszki
William James
Lord Kames
Robert Kane
Immanuel Kant
Tomis Kapitan
Jaegwon Kim
William King
Hilary Kornblith
Christine Korsgaard
Saul Kripke
Andrea Lavazza
Keith Lehrer
Gottfried Leibniz
Michael Levin
George Henry Lewes
David Lewis
Peter Lipton
John Locke
Michael Lockwood
E. Jonathan Lowe
John R. Lucas
Ruth Barcan Marcus
James Martineau
Storrs McCall
Hugh McCann
Colin McGinn
Michael McKenna
Brian McLaughlin
John McTaggart
Paul E. Meehl
Uwe Meixner
Alfred Mele
Trenton Merricks
John Stuart Mill
Dickinson Miller
C. Lloyd Morgan
Thomas Nagel
Friedrich Nietzsche
John Norton
Robert Nozick
William of Ockham
Timothy O'Connor
David F. Pears
Charles Sanders Peirce
Derk Pereboom
Steven Pinker
Karl Popper
Huw Price
Hilary Putnam
Willard van Orman Quine
Frank Ramsey
Ayn Rand
Michael Rea
Thomas Reid
Charles Renouvier
Nicholas Rescher
Richard Rorty
Josiah Royce
Bertrand Russell
Paul Russell
Gilbert Ryle
Jean-Paul Sartre
Kenneth Sayre
Moritz Schlick
Arthur Schopenhauer
John Searle
Wilfrid Sellars
Alan Sidelle
Ted Sider
Henry Sidgwick
Walter Sinnott-Armstrong
Saul Smilansky
Michael Smith
Baruch Spinoza
L. Susan Stebbing
George F. Stout
Galen Strawson
Peter Strawson
Eleonore Stump
Francisco Suárez
Richard Taylor
Kevin Timpe
Mark Twain
Peter Unger
Peter van Inwagen
Manuel Vargas
John Venn
Kadri Vihvelin
G.H. von Wright
David Foster Wallace
R. Jay Wallace
Ted Warfield
Roy Weatherford
William Whewell
Alfred North Whitehead
David Widerker
David Wiggins
Bernard Williams
Timothy Williamson
Ludwig Wittgenstein
Susan Wolf


Michael Arbib
Bernard Baars
Gregory Bateson
John S. Bell
Charles Bennett
Ludwig von Bertalanffy
Susan Blackmore
Margaret Boden
David Bohm
Niels Bohr
Ludwig Boltzmann
Emile Borel
Max Born
Satyendra Nath Bose
Walther Bothe
Hans Briegel
Leon Brillouin
Stephen Brush
Henry Thomas Buckle
S. H. Burbury
Donald Campbell
Anthony Cashmore
Eric Chaisson
Jean-Pierre Changeux
Arthur Holly Compton
John Conway
John Cramer
E. P. Culverwell
Charles Darwin
Terrence Deacon
Louis de Broglie
Max Delbrück
Abraham de Moivre
Paul Dirac
Hans Driesch
John Eccles
Arthur Stanley Eddington
Paul Ehrenfest
Albert Einstein
Hugh Everett, III
Franz Exner
Richard Feynman
R. A. Fisher
Joseph Fourier
Lila Gatlin
Michael Gazzaniga
GianCarlo Ghirardi
J. Willard Gibbs
Nicolas Gisin
Paul Glimcher
Thomas Gold
Brian Goodwin
Joshua Greene
Jacques Hadamard
Patrick Haggard
Stuart Hameroff
Augustin Hamon
Sam Harris
Hyman Hartman
John-Dylan Haynes
Martin Heisenberg
John Herschel
Werner Heisenberg
Jesper Hoffmeyer
E. T. Jaynes
William Stanley Jevons
Roman Jakobson
Pascual Jordan
Ruth E. Kastner
Stuart Kauffman
Simon Kochen
Stephen Kosslyn
Ladislav Kovàč
Rolf Landauer
Alfred Landé
Pierre-Simon Laplace
David Layzer
Benjamin Libet
Seth Lloyd
Hendrik Lorentz
Josef Loschmidt
Ernst Mach
Donald MacKay
Henry Margenau
James Clerk Maxwell
Ernst Mayr
Ulrich Mohrhoff
Jacques Monod
Emmy Noether
Howard Pattee
Wolfgang Pauli
Massimo Pauri
Roger Penrose
Steven Pinker
Colin Pittendrigh
Max Planck
Susan Pockett
Henri Poincaré
Daniel Pollen
Ilya Prigogine
Hans Primas
Adolphe Quételet
Juan Roederer
Jerome Rothstein
David Ruelle
Erwin Schrödinger
Aaron Schurger
Claude Shannon
David Shiang
Herbert Simon
Dean Keith Simonton
B. F. Skinner
Roger Sperry
Henry Stapp
Tom Stonier
Antoine Suarez
Leo Szilard
William Thomson (Kelvin)
Peter Tse
Heinz von Foerster
John von Neumann
John B. Watson
Daniel Wegner
Steven Weinberg
Paul A. Weiss
John Wheeler
Wilhelm Wien
Norbert Wiener
Eugene Wigner
E. O. Wilson
H. Dieter Zeh
Ernst Zermelo
Wojciech Zurek


Free Will
Mental Causation
James Symposium
After dualisms, the next most popular philosophical architectonic structures are triads, triplicities, or trinities.

Some philosophers describe their triads as three "worlds," just as dualism is often described in terms of an Ideal World and a Material World. The deep philosophical (and scientific) question is - do these divisions "carve Nature at the joints," as Plato put it in the Phaedrus, (265e)?

We analyze examples, and find that the three worlds are most often simply the canonical Ideal/Material dualism with an interpolated third world corresponding to a human world (or more broadly, the biological world), with its obvious connection to the world of "subjective?" ideas above and the "objective" material world below.

Gottlob Frege's Three Realms

  • An External Realm of Public Physical Things and Events
  • An Internal Subjective Realm of Private Thoughts
  • An "Objective" Platonic Realm of Ideal "Senses" (to which sentences refer, providing their meaning)

Karl Popper's Three Worlds (clearly influenced by Frege)

  • World I - "the realm of physical things and processes"
  • World II - "the realm of subjective human experience"
  • World III - "the realm of culture and objective knowledge" - of human artifacts (our Sum)

Charles Sanders Peirce's Three Universes of Experience.

Peirce's first and third worlds are both immaterial (our Sum), with the material world in the middle. So a better triad would have had Signs in the middle as human inventions mediating between the ideal and the material. Peirce's triad of Objects - Percepts - Concepts is in the correct order. Another related Peircean triad is Tychasm/Chance, Ananchasm/Necessity, and Synechism/Continuity, or Evolutionary Love.

  • Firstness - Ideas
  • Secondness - Things
  • Thirdness - Signs.

Pierre Teilhard de Chardin's Three Phases of Development. Teilhard tried to divide evolution into different temporal phases, which maps well onto our three levels of information emergence .

  • Geosphere - Inanimate Matter
  • Biosphere - Living Things
  • Noösphere - Human Cognition.

The Information Philosopher's Three levels of Information Emergence (seen in our tri-color I-Phi logo)

  • The Physical/Material (green) - Ilya Prigogine's "order out of chaos," when the matter in the universe forms information structures
  • The Biological/Material (red) - Erwin Schrödinger's "order out of order," when the material information structures form teleonomic self-replicating biological information structures that communicate and process information
  • The Mental/Immaterial (blue) - Bob Doyle's abstract "information out of order," when organisms with minds create and externalize information, communicating it to other minds and storing it in the environment for future humans

Bob Doyle's Three Sources that "Ground" Authoritative Knowledge

  • The Traditional - Knowledge is inherited, handed down, from the great thinkers of the past (compare Frege's "Objective" Platonic Realm of Ideal "Senses" to which sentences "refer," providing their meaning)
  • The Modern - Knowledge is created by Reason, by providing a rational account (logos) of how things are, augmented by modern empirical science since the Enlightenment
  • The Post-Modern - all cultural knowledge is "relative" to the culture that invented it. For conservative post-moderns, science can establish knowledge about an objective external world. For radical post-moderns, "anything goes" (Feyerabend), even science "invents/creates reality." There are no grounds/foundations for knowledge, for "justified true beliefs."

Terrence Deacon's three kinds of dynamics.

  • Homeodynamic- "Any dynamic process that spontaneously reduces a system's constraints to their minimum and thus more evenly distributes system properties across space and time. The second law of thermodynamics describes the paradigm case" (thus states of thermodynamic equilibrium, with maximal disorder and with minimal information? If so, "thermodynamic" might be a better term?)
  • Morphodynamic - "Dynamical organization exhibiting the tendency to become spontaneously more organized and orderly over time due to constant perturbation, but without the extrinsic imposition of influences that specifically impose that regularity" (thus both Prigogine's "order out of chaos" and Schrödinger's "order out of order" are morphodynamic; note that both of these are "negentropic")
  • Teleodynamic - "A form of dynamical organization exhibiting end-directedness and consequence-organized features that is constituted by the co-creation, complementary constraint, and reciprocal synergy of two or more strongly coupled morphodynamic processes" (end-directedness is usually called "teleonomic")

Merlin Donald's levels of Culture Emergence.

  • Mimetic: the "copycat" or "monkey see, monkey do" ability of primates facilitated transfer of learning, ritual
  • Mythic: language in humans, mental/brain development is influenced by social network of speakers generating symbols for ideas
  • Informatic: External storage of knowledge - writing, printing, computers, Internet

Types of Triads

  • Levels: Material - Biological/Human - Ideal (physis - bios/nomos - logos)

  • Inner Levels: Body - Mind/Brain - Spirit

  • Plato: Truth - Goodness - Beauty

  • Aristotle/Kant: Epistemology - Ethics - Aesthetics

  • Number: One - Two/Many - All (unity - duality/plurality - totality)

  • Person: I - You - We (self - other - society/community)

  • Truth: Correspondence - Coherence - Consistency (empirical - conventional/pragmatic - logical)

  • Time: Past - Present - Future

  • Family: Father - Mother - Son

  • Dialectic: Thesis - Antithesis - Synthesis (new higher thesis)

  • Hume's Relations: Similarity - Contiguity - Causality (form - space - time)

  • Medieval Trivium: Grammar - Rhetoric - Logic

  • Rhetoric: Simile - Metonym - Metaphor

  • Peirce: Objects - Percepts - Concepts

  • Peirce's Semiotics: Icon - Index - Symbol

  • Peirce's Symbol: Ground - Object - Interpretant

  • Peirce's Science: Abduction (hypothesis) - Induction - Deduction

  • Grounds: Tradition - Modern - Postmodern

  • Beliefs: Naturalism - Humanism - Spiritualism (supernatural/superhuman)

  • Matter: Solid - Liquid - Gas (earth - water - air)

  • Time: Begin - Middle - End (archos - physis/nomos - telos)

  • Journey: Eden - Fall - Atonement (home - travels - homecoming)

  • Life: Birth - Life - Death

A Few Tetrads
  • Classical Materials: Earth - Water - Air - Fire (anticipating today's states of matter: solid - liquid - gas - plasma)

  • Plato's Divided Line: Stories - Techniques - Hypotheses - Theories (eikasia - pistis - dianoia - noesis)

  • Aristotle's Causes: Material cause - Efficient cause - Formal cause - Final cause

    (He considered chance to be a possible fifth cause.)

  • Graeco-Roman Four Temperaments (or humors): Choleric (yellow bile), Melancholic (black bile), Sanguine (blood), and Phlegmatic (phlegm)
    anticipating the four major neurotransmitters from the brain stem that regulate mood: Serotonin, Dopamine, GABA and Norepinephrine.

  • Medieval cosmology: Earth (below us) - Water (with us) - Air (above us) - Stars (beyond us)

  • The medieval scholastic Quadrivium: Math - Geometry - Music - Astronomy (number - space - time - motion)

  • Schopenhauer's Fourfold Root of Sufficient Reason: Being -Becoming - Knowing - Willing

  • Heidegger's Geviert (2x2): Earth - Mortals - Heavens - Gods

  • Derrida's Jeu des Cartes

For Teachers
For Scholars
C.S. Pierce's "response to the anticipated suspicion that he attaches a superstitious or fanciful importance to the number three, and forces divisions to a Procrustean bed of trichotomy."

"I fully admit that there is a not uncommon craze for trichotomies... I am not so afflicted; but I find myself obliged, for truth's sake, to make such a large number of trichotomies that I could not [but] wonder if my readers, especially those of them who are in the way of knowing how common the malady is, should suspect, or even opine, that I am a victim of it. But I am now and here going to convince those who are open to conviction, that it is not so, but that there is a good reason why a thorough student of the subject of this book should be led to make trichotomies, that the nature of the science is such that not only is it to be expected that it should involve real trichotomies, but furthermore, that there is a cause that tends to give this form." (Collected Papers, C.S.Peirce, Principles of Philosophy, 1.568)

David Hume's discovery of the only three possible bases for the association of ideas.

"The fact that different ideas are connected is too obvious to be overlooked; yet I have not found any philosopher trying to list or classify all the sources of association. This seems to be worth doing. To me there appear to be only three factors connecting ideas with one another, namely, ŸResemblance, ŸŸContiguity in time or place, and ŸŸCause or ŸEffect.

I don’t think there will be much doubt that our ideas are connected by these factors. ŸA picture naturally leads our thoughts to the thing that is depicted in it; Ÿthe mention of one room naturally introduces remarks or questions about other rooms in the same building; and Ÿif we think of a wound, we can hardly help thinking about the pain that follows it. But it will be hard to prove to anyone’s satisfaction - the reader’s or my own - that this these three are the only sources of association among our ideas. All we can do is to consider a large number of instances where ideas are connected, find in each case what connects them, and eventually develop a really general account of this phenomenon. The more cases we look at, and the more care we employ on them, the more assured we can be that our final list of principles of association is complete." (Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, Section III, Of the Association of Ideas, David Hume)

"We have three relationships
- one to this bodily shell which envelops us
- one to the Divine cause which is the Source of everything in all things
- and one to our fellow mortals around us." (Marcus Aurelius, Book VIII, 27)

"“Two things fill the mind with ever new and increasing admiration and awe, the more often and steadily we reflect upon them: the starry heavens above me and the moral law within me" (Kant, Critique of Practical Reason, 5:161.33-6)

Chapter 6.9 - Theories Chapter 7.1 - Conclusions
Part Five - Problems Part Seven - Afterwords
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