Over the centuries many philosophers have seen a fundamental dualism. Most have invented their own names for this dualism. Not all have meant the very same things, but the great similarities allow us to collect all these dualisms into a quasi-chronological table, where similarities and slight differences become more clear. Of course many have claimed to be monists. "All is One," they said, as they generally reduced the physical world to the ideal, or vice versa, or argued that the ideal and physical worlds were somehow both something else. But their underlying dualism was inescapable. Many philosophers saw the need for the two sides to work together. Immanuel Kant wrote
Gedanken ohne Inhalt sind leer.Charles Sanders Peirce rewrote it as
If Materialism without Idealism is blind,With a nod to Kant and Peirce, we can say
Concepts without Percepts are empty.And although Freedom and Values are not a Dualism, they too require one another and we can observe
Freedom without Values is Absurd (Continental Existentialism).In Information Philosophy, we divide the world into three fundamental parts, the material, the ideal (ideas are the same kind of abstraction as pure information), and the biological/human, a middle world that combines ideality and materiality.
The Information Philosopher's three levels are seen in our tri-color I-Phi logo.
YouTube excerptsChalmers on Something Other than Materialism