Arthur FineArthur Fine is a philosopher of science noted for his early readings of Albert Einstein's unpublished papers which became available to him at Princeton as part of the Collected Papers of Albert Einstein project, edited by John Stachel and others. Especially important was Fine's critical reading of the Einstein-Schrödinger correspondence of 1926, which prefigures their exchanges nine years later about nonlocality and nonseparability, following Einstein's epoch-making EPR paper in 1935. Fine traces the Einstein's debates in the late 1920's about interpretations of the "new" quantum mechanics with Bohr, Heisenberg, Schrödinger, and Max Born, among others. Fine shows that the standard attacks on Einstein as not understanding their ideas, that he is senile, are completely inappropriate. In particular, their portrayal of Einstein as hoping to restore determinism and objecting to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is misplaced. Fine shows that Einstein had five objections to the new quantum mechanics, even before Heisenberg formulated his uncertainty principle in mid-1927.
(1) the equations of the theory are not relativistically invariant; (2) it does not yield the classical behavior of macroscopic objects to a good approximation; (3) it leads to correlations among spatially separated objects that appear to violate action-by-contact principles; (4) it is an essentially statistical theory that seems incapable even of describing the behavior of individual systems; and (5) the scope of the commutation relations may not in fact be so broad as the theory supposes.Fine is correct that Einstein held these views in early 1927. But we have shown that he suspected many of them (especially 1, 3) as early as 1905. That chance is involved he saw clearly in 1916, so alternative possibilities exist with calculable probabilities.
References"Einstein's Critique of Quantum Theory," Chapter 3 of The Shaky Game Bohr was more conservative, retaining classical, etc. Bell not disproving uncertainty (but disproving locality) Jammer - wrong about uncertainty Heisenberg - Einstein senile Schrödinger - derived his equation Normal | Teacher | Scholar