Steven FrautschiSteven Frautschi is Professor Emeritus of physics at Cal Tech. His main work was in high-energy physics and the strong interaction, though it was superceded by quantum chromodynamics in the 1970's. His importance to information philosophy is his 1982 paper in Science, Entropy in an Expanding Universe. In his paper summary, Frautschi writes...
The question of how the observed evolution of organized structures from initial chaos in the expanding universe can be reconciled with the laws of statistical mechanics is studied, with emphasis on effects of the expansion and gravity. Some major sources of entropy increase are listed. An expanding "causal" region is defined in which the entropy, though increasing, tends to fall further and further behind its maximum possible value, thus allowing for the development of order.Frautschi's main conclusion is buried on page 3 of his 7-page paper, which refers in a foonote to the scientist who originated this view - David Layzer right from the beginning at 10-43 second, and certainly later at times when the physics is better understood, gravitational entropy in a causal region fails to keep pace with its maximum potential value. We have thus come to a conclusion which stands the closed 19th-century model on its head. Far from approaching equilibrium, the expanding universe as viewed in a succession of causal regions falls further and further behind achieving equilibrium. This gives ample scope for interesting nonequilibrium structures to develop out of initial chaos (15), as has occurred in nature. Frautschi's reference 15 is to Layzer's landmark Science paper on the Arrow of Time in 1975. Normal | Teacher | Scholar