William AlstonWilliam P. Alston was an analytic philosopher and epistemologist. With Alvin Plantinga, he founded the Society of Christian Philosophers and the journal Faith and Philosophy. He argued for a blend of internalism and externalism. The fulfillment of one's epistemic duty (deontological justification) strengthened foundationalist justification on the internalist side. He argued for levels of justification, first order, second order, etc. One need not be justified in holding a second-order belief in p, but still may be directly justified in believing p. Alston tried to show the reliability of perception, despite circular reasoning, and thereby defended justified beliefs in God. On the externalist side, he followed Thomas Reid in seeing justification as a certain kind of social practice. Alston was a leader in the effort to create a "reformed epistemology" that could justify belief in God as a "basic belief" and defend faith as rational. Basic beliefs do not require explicit justification. They are self-justifying, according to some epistemologists. Alston did not care for the adjective "Reformed," as it refers back to John Calvin's Reformed theology, and the doctrine that God placed a sensus divinatus in the minds of men.